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By Richard I. Lawless

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DeLancey, Sheila L. Elliott, December Green, Kenneth J. Menkhaus, Mohammad Haji Moqtar, Peter J. Schraeder 93 Brunei, Sylvia C. Engelen Krausse and Gerald H. Krausse 94 Albania, William B. Bland 95 Singapore, Stella R. Quah and Jon S. T. Quah 96 Guyana, Frances Chambers 97 Chile, Harold Blakemore 98 El Salvador, Ralph Lee Woodward, Jr. 99 The Arctic, H. G. R. King 100 Nigeria, Robert A. Myers 101 Ecuador, David Corkhill 102 Uruguay, Henry Finch with the assistance of Alicia Casas de Barrán 103 Japan, Frank Joseph Shulman 104 Belgium, R.

At the beginning of the 15th century, Spain, having completed the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims, carried its crusade across the Mediterranean, occupying a number of ports in the central Maghreb. Mers el Kebir fell to the Spaniards in 1505, Oran in 1509, and Bougie in 1510, while Tents, Dellys, Cherchel, Mostaganem and finally Algiers agreed to pay tribute to Spain. The major check on the Spanish advance came not from the local rulers but from a new force, the Ottoman Turks.

Kharbas 27 Turkey, Merel Güçlü 28 Cyprus, Rev. , P. M. Kitromilides and M. L. Evriviades 29 Oman, Rev. , Frank A. Clements 31 Finland, J. E. O. Screen 32 Poland, Rev. , George Sanford and Adriana Gozdecka-Sanford 33 Tunisia, Allan M. Findlay, Anne M. Findlay and Richard I. Lawless 34 Scotland, Eric G. Grant 35 China, Peter Cheng 36 Qatar, P. T. H. Unwin 37 Iceland, John J. Horton 38 Nepal, John Whelpton 39 Haiti, Rev. , Frances Chambers 40 Sudan, Rev. , M. W. Daly 41 Vatican City State, Michael J.

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