By Renata Dmowska
A transparent exposition of the iteration T waves via earthquakes, the strain accumulation version, and seismic ray tracing and wavefront monitoring in laterally heterogeneous media.
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A textbook for graduate scholars and researchers in geology, geophysics, fabrics technological know-how, mineralogy and ceramics.
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Slowness parameter introduced by Newman and Okal (1998). Center left: Discriminant D vs parameter γ . Center right: Discriminant D vs. Note the excellent correlations, especially in the latter case. See text for detailed interpretation. THE GENERATION OF T WAVES BY EARTHQUAKES 53 F IG . 25.
Note that energy is present both in the liquid and solid, but the larger phase velocity expresses the inefficient lateral propagation of the energy in the liquid layer. Adapted (combined; rescaled; re-labeled) from Pekeris (1948) and Park et al. (2001). 23 24 OKAL • The computation of the excitation of the modes At any given frequency, the excitation of the various modes by any source in the ocean column (taken as a point source explosion) or in the solid Earth (taken as an elastic dislocation) is readily computed in the formalisms of Saito (1967) or Gilbert (1970).
However, such studies were mostly based on restricted datasets, and predated the large tsunamis of the 1990s, and in particular the “tsunami earthquakes” of 1992 (Nicaragua), 1994 (Java) and 1996 (Chimbote, Peru). ’s (1950) model precarious since we now understand that T waves can be generated by the very deepest events (Northrop, 1974; Okal, 2001b), while the generation of far-field tsunami energy is only mildly controlled by source depth for reasonably shallow earthquakes (h 70 km) (Ward, 1980; Okal, 1988).