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By H.E. Landsberg (Ed.)

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Since the reflectivity is inversely 28 J. 8 . MARSHALL, WALTER HITSCHFELD AND K. L. s. QUNN proportional t o X4, some of this loss can be recovered by going to shorter wavelengths. Less power is then available, but radars of wavelength 3 cm and shorter can detect clouds. Most of the radars intended for cloud detection have used a fixed, vertically pointing beam in order to minimize the range. Wavelengths both somewhat greater and somewhat less than 1 cm have been used for cloud observations with some success.

29. 30. 31. 32. 33. lations based on aircraft and radar observations. Proceedings, Toronto Meteorological Conference, September 9-15, 1953, The Royal Meteorological Society, London. , and Austin, P. M. (1953). Radar signal intensity from differentlevels in continuous precipitation. Conference Proceedings p. VII-3; see ref. [16]. , and G u m , K. L. S. (1951). Scattering of microwaves by a melting spherical ice particle, J. Meteorol. 8, 424. Labrum, N. R. (1952). Some experiments on centimetre wavelength scattering by small obstacles, J .

The occurrence of the echoes a t freezing temperatures becomes significant in connection with theories of the separation of electric charge in thunderclouds. Regarding duration, Ligda, Marshall, and Miles found the time to be most often not less than one-third of a second. However, Miles has reported durations of the order of one-thirtieth of a second for lightning ADVANCES I N HADAIt W E A T H E R 27 echoes from distant storms. Hewitt [G7] on the other hand found echoes even from relatively close storms to have durations as short as onehundredth of a second.

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