Download A Treatise of Human Nature (Penguin Classics) by David Hume PDF

By David Hume

Probably the most major works of Western philosophy, Hume's Treatise was once released in 1739-40, sooner than he used to be thirty years previous. A top of English empiricism, it's a entire try to practice clinical equipment of commentary to a learn of human nature, and a energetic assault upon the rules of conventional metaphysical proposal. With masterly eloquence, Hume denies the immortality of the soul and the truth of house; considers the style during which we shape strategies of id, reason and influence; and speculates upon the character of freedom, advantage and emotion. hostile either to metaphysics and to rationalism, Hume's philosophy of knowledgeable scepticism sees guy now not as a spiritual production, nor as a computer, yet as a creature ruled by means of sentiment, ardour and urge for food.

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Example text

Only thus could I gain room for my new and more intelligible presentation of the subject, which, though it changes absolutely nothing with regard to propositions and even to their proofs, yet departs so considerably from the former, in the whole arrangement of the argument, that interpolations would not have been sufficient. This small loss, which every reader may easily redeem by consulting the first edition, will, I hope, be more Critique of Pure Reason determination would not require the consciousness of a relation to something outside me.

I venture to hope that this system will maintain itself unchanged for the future also. It is not conceit which justifies me in this confidence, but the experimental evidence of achieving the same result, whether we proceed progressively from the smallest elements to the whole of pure reason, or retrogressively from the whole (for this also is given by the practical objects of reason) to every single part; the fact being that any attempt at altering even the smallest item at once produces contradictions, not only in the system, but in human reason in 26 Critique of Pure Reason general.

One easily sees, however, that the will is thereby directed to something else which he is assumed to desire; and, as to this desire, we must leave it up to the man himself if he foresees other resources than his own acquisitions, does not even hope to reach old age, or thinks that in case of need he can make do with little. Reason, from which alone a rule involving necessity can be derived, gives necessity to this precept, without which it would not be an imperative; but this necessity is dependent on only subjective conditions, and one cannot assume it in equal measure in all men.

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