By Peter McPhee
This quantity presents an authoritative synthesis of modern paintings at the social heritage of France and is now completely revised and up-to-date to hide the 'long 19th century' from 1789-1914. Peter McPhee bargains either a readable narrative and a particular, coherent argument approximately this century. McPhee explores subject matters akin to peasant interplay with the surroundings, the altering event of labor and rest, the character of crime and protest, altering demographic styles and relatives constitution, the non secular practices of employees and peasants, and the ideology and inner repercussions of colonisation.
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Additional info for A Social History of France, 1789-1914
The entrenched hostility of most nobles towards fiscal and social reform was generated both by the longterm exigencies of royal state-making and by the challenge to an aristocratic conception of property, hierarchy and social order emanating from a wealthier, larger and socially frustrated bourgeoisie and an openly disaffected peasantry. 44 Significantly, even the discourse of entrenched noble interests used the language of the philosophes: the parlement of Toulouse asserted that ‘the natural rights of municipalities, common to all men, are inalienable, imprescriptible, as eternal as nature which forms their basis’.
Louis’s attempt at resolving this challenge by proposing mild reform while maintaining a system of separate orders quickly faded, and by 27 June he had seemed to capitulate. However, despite their assumed mantle of national will, the bourgeois deputies and their allies were soon confronted by a counter-attack from the court. Paris, 18 kilometres from Versailles and the heartland of revolutionary enthusiasm, was invested with 20,000 mercenaries and, in symbolic defiance, Louis dismissed Jacques Necker, his one non-noble minister, on 11 July.
Over the next two years, the deputies of the Assembly threw themselves with extraordinary energy into the task of reworking institutions of public life bearing the imprint of the ancien régime. 17 Two immediate problems had to be addressed. The first was that the Assembly had inherited the monarchy’s bankruptcy, aggravated by popular refusal to pay taxes, and took several measures to meet this crisis. In November 1789, church lands were ‘put at the disposal of the nation’, nationalized in April 1790, and, from November 1790, sold at auction.