By Steve Tsang
From a little-known fishing neighborhood on the outer edge of China, Hong Kong constructed into one of many world's so much dazzling and cosmopolitan towns after a century and a half British imperial rule. The heritage of Hong Kong, from its career through the British in 1841 to its go back to chinese language sovereignty in 1997, is an engaging tale of East assembly West. This publication addresses the altering kin among the neighborhood chinese language and expatriate groups in 156 years of British rule, and the emergence of an area id. It explains the significance of China as an element in its improvement and the origins of the so-called "1997 problems," hence reading the underlying purposes for the increase of a liberal society dedicated to the rule of thumb of legislations with out democracy.
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16 In addition to the pro b lem of British access to Canton city, personalities and differences over protocol for contact between British and Chinese officials continued to make relations between them tense, difficult, distrustful and unfriendly. In spite of the Treaty of Nanking, not all successive British Plenipotentiaries and Consuls in Canton established good working relations with the Chinese Viceroy and other senior Chinese officials in Canton. The situation reached a low point in the mid 1850s after Bowring was promoted from Consul in Canton to be Plenipotentiary and Governor of Hong Kong, and was succeeded by Parkes.
54 Instead, the Kaiser’s government used the killing of two German missionaries in November 1897 as a pretext to occupy Jiaozhou (now part of Qingdao) on the southern side of the Shandong promontory in north China. By March 1898, the Germans had imposed a treaty on the hapless Chinese and had leased Jiaozhou for 99 years. Britain was equally unsuccessful in preventing Russia from taking over the ice-free ports of Lushun (Port Arthur) and Dalien in the Liaodong peninsula. Russia followed the German example and occupied the ports 38 A MODERN HISTORY OF HONG KONG in December 1897.
To the French, who trailed far behind the British in the China trade but were much m o re suppor tive of the e vang elical effo r ts of their countrymen, higher priority was put on establishing proper diplomatic relations. 6 The United States of America, which alone among the Western powers was entitled under the Treaty of Wanghia (1844) to have its terms revised, by July 1856 felt the two most important issues were to secure diplomatic representation in Beijing and to extend American trade as far as possible all over China.