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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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C u r r e n t 12 2x ions/sec 12 x ions/sec Vo ta ' + + + + Bias Yoltage Meter The detector consists of a gas-filled chamber with two electrodes, a positive anode and a negative cathode. Ionizing radiation entering the chamber A3-2 CHAPTER A3 Current vs. Ionization The first figure shows two graphs for two different intensities of radiation. 7 mCi) might produce 12 1x10 ion pairs per second, and another source of 200 MBq produce ion pairs at twice that rate. Incoming Radiation + ion / 'd Fixed Volts : Current vs.

M. counter is a popular, and sometimes the only, radiation survey instrument in radionuclide labs, and it has been adapted to read exposure as well as counts per minute. M. 3) is the amount of ionization produced in air by photons. M. g. counts per minute), regardless of the ionization produced by each one. M. counter be used to measure exposure in coulombs/kg or Roentgen units? I. unit of charge, defined as that charge transported per second by an electrical current of 1 ampere). g. Clkg'h or mRlh).

Photopeak Compton Germanium - Single Energy b lig t a b Scintillator TLD a. radiation energy a. radiation energy excites excites electron to electron to ig er level c ig er level b. electron falls into lower, b. electron returns to "trap" level lower level, emitting c. later, lig t electron out of trap, and it falls eat energy raises to lower level, emitting lig t a (Tl) Ge Multiple Energies Computer programs are available to automatically analyze such spectra, based on the areas and energies of the photopeaks, and after calibration, to identify the various radionuclides in a source sample, and quantitate their activities.

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