By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on the Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Governme
Traditionally, rules governing chemical use have frequently inquisitive about widespread chemical substances and acute human healthiness results of publicity to them, in addition to their power to reason melanoma and different adversarial well-being results. As clinical wisdom has improved there was an elevated understanding of the mechanisms wherein chemical compounds may well exert damaging results on human well-being, in addition to their results on other species and ecosystems. identity of high-priority chemical substances and different chemical compounds of shock has brought on more and more kingdom and native governments, in addition to significant businesses, to take steps past present harmful chemical federal laws. curiosity in methods and guidelines that make sure that any new elements substituted for chemical substances of shock are assessed as conscientiously and carefully as attainable has additionally burgeoned. The overarching target of those methods is to prevent regrettable substitutions, which take place whilst a poisonous chemical is changed via one other chemical that later proved incorrect due to endurance, bioaccumulation, toxicity, or different matters. Chemical substitute tests are instruments designed to facilitate attention of those elements to help stakeholders in choosing chemical compounds that could have the best probability of injury to human and ecological wellbeing and fitness, and to supply advice on how the may possibly enhance and undertake more secure choices. A Framework to lead collection of Chemical choices develops and demonstrates a call framework for comparing very likely more secure alternative chemical compounds as essentially made up our minds by way of human well-being and ecological dangers. This new framework is expert via earlier efforts through regulatory enterprises, educational associations, and others to boost replacement evaluation frameworks that may be operationalized. as well as chance exams, the framework comprises steps for life-cycle considering - which considers attainable affects of a chemical in any respect levels together with creation, use, and disposal - in addition to steps for functionality and fiscal checks. The record additionally highlights how sleek info assets resembling computational modeling can complement conventional toxicology info within the overview method. This new framework permits the evaluate of the complete diversity of advantages and shortcomings of substitutes, and exam of tradeoffs among those hazards and components reminiscent of product performance, product efficacy, technique security, and source use. via case reviews, this record demonstrates how diversified clients in contrasting determination contexts with different priorities can practice the framework. This record could be a necessary source to the chemical undefined, environmentalists, ecologists, and country and native governments. Read more...
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Extra resources for A framework to guide selection of chemical alternatives
For example, the protocol includes life cycle assessment and risk assessment as two separate steps, noting that they are not always necessary or appropriate for selecting an alternative (OECD 2013a). The protocol calls for applying Life Cycle Thinking to identify concerns related to potential substitutes’ life cycle and exposure. SPECIFIC FRAMEWORKS CONSIDERED BY THE COMMITTEE California’s Alternatives Analysis program joins alternatives assessment to a decision process for selecting a course of action intended to decrease toxic threats (Kuczenski et al.
GreenScreen® was developed by Clean Production Action, an organization developing tools and strategies in the green chemical space. GreenScreen® is a tool for “benchmarking9” the data on chemicals’ ecotoxicity and human health hazard data. ” Specific hazard and assessment criteria are defined for each of these benchmarks, as described in Chapter 8. Classification (or benchmarking) tools provide threshold values for toxicological end points of interest, for evaluating data about effects of chemicals.
Frameworks: BizNGO, CA SCP, DfE, German Guide, IC2, Lowell, REACH, TURI, UNEP, and UCLA MCDA All the frameworks include some preparatory work before beginning the technical portion of an assessment. The 2009 NRC report, Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment, also recommends scoping and problem formulation. Scoping is a discussion between decision makers and stakeholders in which assessors have a supporting role, and problem formulation is a discussion between decision makers and assessors (and technically-oriented stakeholders) to develop a detailed technical plan for the assessment that reflects the broad conceptual design developed in the scoping stage.